04 November 2011 ~ 0 Comments

Pancharatnam Of Sri Thyagaraja Swamigal

About pancharatnam

                      The term Pancharatna in Sanskrit means five gems. The Pancharatnas are known as the five finest gems of carnatic music. All the Pancharatnas are set to adi thalam. They are set in perfect sarvalaghu and contain all the musical and mathematical wonders of carnatic music.So far as Pancharathnas are concerned, fortunately a stable text has been handed over by the earlier musicians to the present day generations.Several musicians have brought out editions of Pancharatnas.Howeve Veenai Sundaram Iyer’s edition is the most detailed and comprehensive one.


                  All the compositions of Tyagaraja show the way for the systematic development of the respective ragas.However in the Pancharatnas Tyagaraja has given full, exhaustive and complete treatment as to how to systematically and scitifically develop a raga. The Pallavis and anupallavis of the Pancharatnas are absolute musical and rhythmic beauties and an earnest practice of the Pallavis and anupallavis of the Pancjaratna will reveal as to how to develop a raga in a methodical and systematic manner. The two fundamental conditions that must be satisfied for a systematic development of a raga are the arrangement of the solfa swaras in the natural order of Arohanam and Avarohanam of the Ragas so as to satisfy the sound principles of harmony and continuity . Pancharatnas satisfy these scientific principles in an unparalleled manner. The Pancharatnas are composed in perfect sarvalaghu swaras.

                                   The first pancharatna is Jagadanadakaraka, in the raga nATa.It is composed in the most lucid and poetic Sanskrit. It starts with praising Lord Rama who makes the entire world happy. Originally there were only six charanams for the song and when the disciples examined the song it contained ninety names of Lord Rama in mellifluous Sanskrit. The disciples requested Tyagaraja to slightly expand the song by adding two charanas containing eighteen more names of Lord Rama. The saint acceded to the request of the disciples and that is the reason why the song Jagadanadakaraka contains two mudras containing the name of Tyagaraja while the other four songs contain only one mudra each. Thus Jagadanandakaraka is a diamond garland for the Lord consisting of His 108 choicest names. The rhythmic variations of Jagadanandakaraka are amazing.

                                     The next is Duduku gala in the raga gowlai set to adi talam. In this song Tyagaraja takes the blame upon himself for all the misdeeds of men and ruminates as to who would come and save him from this deplorable situation

                                      The Third is Sadhinchene in the raga Arabhi set to adi talam. In this song Tyagaraja lovingly cricises Lord Krishna for his cleverness in getting what he wants to be done. Sadhichene is a breathtaking lullaby.

                                       The fourth song is in the raga varali set to adi talam.In this song Tyagaraja describes the infinite beauty of Lord Rama.

                                       The fifth pancharatna is Endaro Mahanubhavulu.It is said that a great musician from Kerala,Shatkala Marar visited Tygaraja and performed before him. Tyagaraja was enchanted with his performance and then was born Endaro Mahanubhavulu, the unparrallelled rhythmic beauty in Carnatic music.

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